vedas and upanishads religion
December 22, 2020
 Not much is known about the authors except for those, like Yajnavalkayva and Uddalaka, mentioned in the texts. , While the hymns of the Vedas emphasize rituals and the Brahmanas serve as a liturgical manual for those Vedic rituals, the spirit of the Upanishads is inherently opposed to ritual. The work presents to the student of religion, in objective form and with constant reference to the original sources and to modern discussions, a comprehensive but concise account of the whole of the religion and philosophy of the Vedic period in India. This Shows Telling lies is allowed in Hinduism. Devotional India is the Resource for Downloading Vedas, Upanishads and Hindu Scriptures. 20, No. Such an animal worship is known as zoolatry. The number of gods in Hindu Pantheon is given as 33 in one place (Rigveda 1:34:11), which says, आनासत्यातरिभिरएकादशैरइहदेवेभिरयातममधुपेयमअश्विना | परायुसतारिष्टंनीरपांसिमर्क्षतंसेधतंदवेषोभवतंसचाभुवा ||, “Come, O Nasatyas, with the thrice-eleven Gods; come, O ye Asvins, to the drinking of the meath. Indologist Patrick Olivelle says that "in spite of claims made by some, in reality, any dating of these documents [early Upanishads] that attempts a precision closer than a few centuries is as stable as a house of cards". the unchaste Sisna (phallus) is derived from (the root) snath (to pierce) not approach our sanctuary, i.e. Vedas and Upanishads that form the key foundational scriptures of the Sanatana Dharma don’t have authors name mentioned anywhere. 1, pages 21-42. Maharshi Yaska explains this verse in his book Nirukta. The Upanishadic, Buddhist and Jain renunciation traditions form parallel traditions, which share some common concepts and interests. They are, in the true sense of the word, guesses at truth, frequently contradicting each other, yet all tending in one direction. When the Aryans came into India they brought with them a new language, Sanskrit, which they moulded into a remarkably versatile medium for the expression of sublime thoughts and , There is no fixed list of the Upanishads as newer ones, beyond the Muktika anthology of 108 Upanishads, have continued to be discovered and composed. The schools of Vedānta seek to answer questions about the relation between atman and Brahman, and the relation between Brahman and the world. Younger Upanishads state that Brahman (Highest Reality, Universal Principle, Being-Consciousness-Bliss) is identical with Atman, while older upanishads state Atman is part of Brahman but not identical. the manifold creatures who are hostile to us.  Sri Ramanuja frequently cited the Upanishads, and stated that Vishishtadvaita is grounded in the Upanishads. These are the primary texts of Hinduism. The performance of all the sacrifices, described in the Maitrayana-Brahmana, is to lead up in the end to a knowledge of Brahman, to prepare a man for meditation. Like all the other scriptures this famous poem too fails to teach True Religion to mankind. Shah Jehan was influenced by the Emperor and shared his viewpoint.  Similarly, the Karma doctrine is presented in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, which is the oldest Upanishad. Let us find answers to where did hinduism originate, hinduism beliefs and practices and about hindu gods from the hindu holy books. Publication date 1925/00/00 Topics PHILOSOPHY. We discuss here the Overview of Hinduism on the basis of all available sources. Probably the most widely known of all the Vedas, Upanishads are considered at the spiritual core of Hinduism. The ashes of its dung sprinkled over a sinner are able to convert him into a saint. That Vedas teaches polytheism is also evident from the expression used in the same verse and in all the succeeding verses as well: अग्निःपूर्वेभिर्र्षिभिरीड्योनूतनैरुत | सदेवानेहवक्षति ||, “He (Agni) shall bring hitherward the gods.” [Rigveda 1:1:2], अग्नेयंयज्ञमध्वरंविश्वतःपरिभूरसि | सइद्देवेषुगछति ||, अग्निर्होताकविक्रतुःसत्यश्चित्रश्रवस्तमः | देवोदेवेभिरागमत ||, “May Agni, priest, the god, come hither with the gods.” [verse 5]. VEDAS, THE UPANISHADS AND PALI BUDDHISM 3 Pali of Buddhism is an Indo-Aryan liturgical language used in the Indian society. Who wrote Vedas ? Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva are the four Vedas. The early Upanishads are a compilation of various musings of sages. It takes its name from the collections of sacred texts known as the Vedas.  The Maitri Upanishad states,. Krishna claims to be the author of the caste system in India: “The four Castes were created by me according to the appointment of qualities and works.” Says Krishna In Gita Chapter 4 Verse 13. Upanishad is a Sanskrit word where Upa means near and ni means down and shad means sit.  The Brahmasutra by Badarayana (~ 100 BCE) synthesized and unified these somewhat conflicting theories. , Sri Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita school and Shankara's Advaita school are both nondualism Vedanta schools, both are premised on the assumption that all souls can hope for and achieve the state of blissful liberation; in contrast, Madhvacharya believed that some souls are eternally doomed and damned. The Chāndogya Upanishad parodies those who indulge in the acts of sacrifice by comparing them with a procession of dogs chanting Om! Maya means that the world is not as it seems; the world that one experiences is misleading as far as its true nature is concerned. The new Upanishads often have little relation to the Vedic corpus and have not been cited or commented upon by any great Vedanta philosopher: their language differs from that of the classic Upanishads, being less subtle and more formalized. [note 7]. Patrick Olivelle (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press. 7, No. Paul Deussen in his review of the Upanishads, states that the texts emphasize Brahman-Atman as something that can be experienced, but not defined. However, the interpretation is different.  It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. AtharvaVed (Download Part I) ... Shankara Bhashya and all branches of hindu religion and traditions in his writings. (Gurumukh) Other dictionary meanings include "esoteric doctrine" and "secret doctrine". Vishnu As Krishna Avatar In Mahabharata Book 8; Karna Parva; Section 69declares: “On an occasion of marriage, or of enjoying a woman, or when life is in danger, or when one’s entire property is about to be taken away, or for the sake of a Brahmin, falsehood may be uttered. At Bhagvad Gita Chapter 5, Verse 15 it is said, that ‘the Lord receives the sin and merit of none.’ Yet at Chapter 5, Verse 29, and again at Chapter 9, Verse 24, Krishna calls himself ‘the Lord and enjoyer’ of all sacrifices and penances.  In the fourth chapter of the Kaushitaki Upanishad, a location named Kashi (modern Varanasi) is mentioned. According to Nakamura, the Brahman sutras see Atman and Brahman as both different and not-different, a point of view which came to be called bhedabheda in later times. Let's drink. At the very threshold, we are met with the formidable difficulty that Hinduism is not one religion, but many religions jumbled together under a single name. Here 'illusion' does not mean that the world is not real and simply a figment of the human imagination. A Veda is divided into four parts, namely, Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanishad. M dhav nanda, Sw m , texto sánscrito y traducción, The Vivekacudamani of a kar c rya, 3ª ed., Mayavati, Almora, 1932. , There are more than 200 known Upanishads, one of which, the Muktikā Upanishad, predates 1656 CE and contains a list of 108 canonical Upanishads, including itself as the last. , The Upanishads form one of the three main sources for all schools of Vedanta, together with the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutras.  Ātman is a central idea in all the Upanishads, and "Know your Ātman" their thematic focus. The word Atman means the inner self, the soul, the immortal spirit in an individual, and all living beings including animals and trees. , The first German translation appeared in 1832 and Roer's English version appeared in 1853. , While significant attempts have been made recently to identify the exact locations of the individual Upanishads, the results are tentative. They note that there is no historical evidence of the philosophers of the two schools meeting, and point out significant differences in the stage of development, orientation and goals of the two philosophical systems. The Vedas are regarded as the fountainhead of Hinduism. The shared concepts include rebirth, samsara, karma, meditation, renunciation and moksha. , According to the Dvaita school, states Fowler, the "Upanishads that speak of the soul as Brahman, speak of resemblance and not identity". , The general area of the composition of the early Upanishads is considered as northern India. Brahman's unity comes to be taken to mean that appearances of individualities. suggestion that have shaped the entire Hindu tradition. The word appears in the verses of many Upanishads, such as the fourth verse of the 13th volume in first chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad. Vedas The Vedas are perhaps the oldest written text on our planet today. Deussen Paul traductor Sechzig Upanishads des Veda Leipzig 1897 Philosophy of. theists, and those who believe in Brahma ,i.e.  The mukhya Upanishads are the most important and highlighted. As per Bhagvad Gita Chapter 4 Verses 6-8He is different not only from the fleeting world, but also from the changeless and indestructible energy of all beings. , The Muktikā Upanishad's list of 108 Upanishads groups the first 13 as mukhya,[note 9] 21 as Sāmānya Vedānta, 20 as Sannyāsa, 14 as Vaishnava, 12 as Shaiva, 8 as Shakta, and 20 as Yoga.  The schools of Vedanta are named after the relation they see between atman and Brahman:, Other schools of Vedanta include Nimbarka's Dvaitadvaita, Vallabha's Suddhadvaita and Chaitanya's Acintya Bhedabheda. The principle incarnations he is said to have so far assumed are those of (1) a fish, (2) a tortoise, (3) a Boar, (4) a man-lion (5) a Dwarf, (6) a Brahmin hero called Parasu Ram, (7) a Kshatriya Prince, the hero of Ramayana, (8) a shepherd Prince Krishna and (9) a Kshatriya heretic, Buddha. But is does promote ideas like Polytheism and Caste. upon a very different situation 1,000 to 1,500 years earlier. The many extant lists of authentic Shakta Upaniṣads vary, reflecting the sect of their compilers, so that they yield no evidence of their "location" in Tantric tradition, impeding correct interpretation. One chronology assumes that the Aitareya, Taittiriya, Kausitaki, Mundaka, Prasna, and Katha Upanishads has Buddha's influence, and is consequently placed after the 5th century BCE, while another proposal questions this assumption and dates it independent of Buddha's date of birth.  These lists associated each Upanishad with one of the four Vedas, many such lists exist, and these lists are inconsistent across India in terms of which Upanishads are included and how the newer Upanishads are assigned to the ancient Vedas.  The Vedic texts assert that they were skillfully created by Rishis (sages), after inspired creativity, just as a carpenter builds a chariot.  The older Upanishads launch attacks of increasing intensity on the ritual.  The Upanishads are respected not because they are considered revealed (Shruti), but because they present spiritual ideas that are inspiring. So it meant a student should sit down near the teacher while learning. Monier-Williams' Sanskrit Dictionary notes – "According to native authorities, Upanishad means setting to rest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit. SIGNIFICANCE Vedas Religious Books. - Rig veda, Atharvaveda, Sama, Yajurveda. As a result of the influence of these writers, the Upanishads gained renown in Western countries. Ben-Ami Scharfstein (1998), A Comparative History of World Philosophy: From the Upanishads to Kant, State University of New York Press. Vedism is the oldest stratum of religious activity in India for which there exist written materials. Vedism, or the Religion of the Vedas, teaches the worship of the deified forces or phenomenon of Nature, such as Fire, the Sun, Wind and Rain. May he overpower them, i.e. Ramanujan Book Prize for Translation. [note 11], Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan states that the Upanishads have dominated Indian philosophy, religion and life ever since their appearance. To study the Overview of Hinduism, the Upanishads takes crucial part in hindu culture and so it is must to note on.  It deals with the non-dual nature of Brahman and Atman.  The existing texts are believed to be the work of many authors.  These texts state that the inmost core of every person is not the body, nor the mind, nor the ego, but Atman – "soul" or "self". The two late prose Upanisads, the Prasna and the Mandukya, cannot be much older than the beginning of the common era. The Aitareya, Kauṣītaki and Taittirīya Upanishads may date to as early as the mid 1st millennium BCE, while the remnant date from between roughly the 4th to 1st centuries BCE, roughly contemporary with the earliest portions of the Sanskrit epics. They have also had a vast influence on Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. our truth, or sacrifice.”-Nirukta 4.19.  Gaudapada's Advaita ideas were further developed by Shankara (8th century CE). Because the religion has no specific founder, like other religions, it is difficult to trace its origins and history of Hinduism. Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002), Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Theological Soundings and Perspectives, Rodopi Press. It is not easy therefore to give a definition of Hinduism, “Hinduism and its gods, are a troubled sea, without shore or visible horizon, driven to and fro by the winds of boundless credulity and grotesque invention. The Vedic Upanishads pay attention to the religion of the Vedas and to the meaning of the Vedic sacrifice.  Many Shakhas are said to have existed, of which only a few remain. Addeddate Is Hitler's Swastika Christian Origin?  The Latin version was the initial introduction of the Upanishadic thought to Western scholars. PT Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge. It then goes on to say that spiritual autonomy can only be achieved by renouncing the universe which is conceived in the image of a horse. , Juan Mascaró, a professor at the University of Barcelona and a translator of the Upanishads, states that the Upanishads represents for the Hindu approximately what the New Testament represents for the Christian, and that the message of the Upanishads can be summarized in the words, "the kingdom of God is within you".. Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1986), Dreams, Illusion, and Other Realities, University of Chicago Press. , The poet T. S. Eliot, inspired by his reading of the Upanishads, based the final portion of his famous poem The Waste Land (1922) upon one of its verses. Bhagvad Gita Chapter 11 Verses 15 and 37Krishna-Vishnu is wholly distinct from Brahma and Brahman is distinctly a lower deity than Krishna. , Hendrick Vroom explains, "the term Maya [in the Upanishads] has been translated as 'illusion,' but then it does not concern normal illusion. The Muktika manuscript found in colonial era Calcutta is the usual default, but other recensions exist. We find no single authoritative hindu holy book but many. Eknath Easwaran (2007), The Upanishads, Nilgiri Press. Teun Goudriaan (2008), Maya: Divine And Human, Motilal Banarsidass. [note 1][note 2] They are the most recent part of the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, the Vedas, that deal with meditation, philosophy, and ontological knowledge; other parts of the Vedas deal with mantras, benedictions, rituals, ceremonies, and sacrifices. The difference between Vedas and Upanishads is that the Vedas were written to preserve the information about the religious practices, traditions, and philosophical thoughts whereas, Upanishads are written philosophical thoughts of men and women that focus mainly on the enlightenment of spirits. It can be seen from the division that Upanishad forms the last part of a given Veda. After these Principal Upanishads are typically placed the Kena, Mandukya and Isa Upanishads, but other scholars date these differently. Curiously enough, the Vedic Rishis likened the chanting of their mantras (hymn) to the lowing of the cows: अभिविप्राअनूषतगावोवत्संनमातरः | इन्द्रंसोमस्यपीतये ||, “As the cows moo in the presence of their calves so do Brahmins recite their mantras while drinking the soma juice in the presence of Indra Devta.” [Rigveda 9:12:2]. As a result, they are not difficult to comprehend for the modern reader. , The later Upanishads, numbering about 95, also called minor Upanishads, are dated from the late 1st-millennium BCE to mid 2nd-millennium CE. This is a significant challenge, considering that these scriptures contain complex philosophical themes and concepts.  Women, such as Maitreyi and Gargi participate in the dialogues and are also credited in the early Upanishads. Vedas) which is full of ordinances of specific acts for the attainment of pleasures and power, and which promises birth as the fruit of acts- that flowery talk which those unwise ones utter, who are enamored of Vedic words, who say there is nothing else, who are full of desires, an whose goal is heaven. Brahman in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world".. The contrast between the opening verse of the Rigveda which teaches Polytheism, and that of the Jewish Bible which teach Monotheism, cannot fail to be noted even by the most superficial reader. "These Upanishadic ideas are developed into Advaita monism. It is not considered as in as mentioned in the five occasions. Wadia writes that Plato's metaphysics were rooted in this life and his primary aim was to develop an ideal state.  Discussion of other ethical premises such as Damah (temperance, self-restraint), Satya (truthfulness), Dāna (charity), Ārjava (non-hypocrisy), Daya (compassion) and others are found in the oldest Upanishads and many later Upanishads. It is considered to be the most sacred of all animals. Upanishads are the late Vedic texts that are the most important texts in Hinduism. The Upanishads reject the Karma, Kanda, or Salvation by means of sacrifices and other rituals taught in the four Vedas and Brahmanas, and advocate the Gnana-Kanda or the theory of Salvation by knowledge. , Many scholars believe that early Upanishads were interpolated and expanded over time. , The Upanishads include sections on philosophical theories that have been at the foundation of Indian traditions. The word Shishan (also spelled Sisna) means Penis. For example, the Brihadaranyaka interprets the practice of horse-sacrifice or ashvamedha allegorically. The Upanishads Best Quotes yogananda com au. The Upanishads are late Vedic Sanskrit texts of religious teachings and ideas still revered in Hinduism.  Brahman is "the infinite source, fabric, core and destiny of all existence, both manifested and unmanifested, the formless infinite substratum and from which the universe has grown". Salutations and prostration to you, O image of God, to your hair, to your hooves.” [[Atharvaved Kaand 10: Sukta10]. Matter and spirit are without beginning (Bhagvad Gita Chapter 13 Verse 20).  In contrast, Upanishadic focus was the individual, the self (atman, soul), self-knowledge, and the means of an individual's moksha (freedom, liberation in this life or after-life). The Upanishads.  The Brahman in the Upanishads is a living reality, states Fowler, and "the Atman of all things and all beings" in Sri Ramanuja's interpretation. As per Bhagvad Gita Chapter 10 Verse 3 God (Krishna-Vishnu) is eternal, almighty, unborn, without beginning, the great Lord of the World. The Upanishads insisted on oneness of soul, excluded all plurality, and therefore, all proximity in space, all succession in time, all interdependence as cause and effect, and all opposition as subject and object. The early Upanishads all predate the Common Era, five[note 6] of them are in all likelihood pre-Buddhist (6th century BCE), stretching down to the Maurya period, which lasted from 322 to 185 BCE. 1, pages 21-42; Chousalkar, Ashok (1986), Social and Political Implications of Concepts Of Justice And Dharma, pages 130-134.  Patrick Olivelle and other scholars date seven of the twenty Sannyasa Upanishads to likely have been complete sometime between the last centuries of the 1st-millennium BCE to 300 CE. ", In the Upanishads, Māyā is the perceived changing reality and it co-exists with Brahman which is the hidden true reality. Paul Deussen (1966), The Philosophy of the Upanishads, Dover. “ Now, here in this fort of brahman there is a small lotus, a dwelling-place, and within it, a small space. Present day Hindu culture is pivoted solely on the cow. In the Vedas, several verses refer to saluting and prostrating before the cow as the following sections illustrate: “Prajapati and Parameshthin are the two horns, Indra is the head, Agni the forehead, Yama the joint of the neck. ... students with a broad understanding of the principal religious and philosophical ideas contained within the four Vedas and the principal Upanishads. 597-598. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer read the Latin translation and praised the Upanishads in his main work, The World as Will and Representation (1819), as well as in his Parerga and Paralipomena (1851). The Upanishads are the crest jewels - choodamani – of the Vedas. Thus, Vedism teaches the worship of the powers of Nature. Schopenhauer used to keep a copy of the Latin Oupnekhet by his side and commented, It has been the solace of my life, it will be the solace of my death.  Gaudapada was the first person to expound the basic principles of the Advaita philosophy in a commentary on the conflicting statements of the Upanishads. The Vedas became known outside India when the Upanishads were translated from Sanskrit, first into Persian as a result of Emperor Akbar 's liberal religious attitude. The key-note of the old Upanishads is "know thyself," but with a much deeper meaning than that of the γνῶθι σεαυτόν of the Delphic Oracle.  The 108 Upanishads as recorded in the Muktikā are shown in the table below. [Trad. They are the last and newest 'layer' of the Vedas (this is India we are talking about, so even this 'new' layer was added about 2,700 years ago), but they are not hymns at all - in fact, many are stories, and / or conversations between teacher and student. Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass.  They were composed between the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE through the early modern era (~1600 CE). They constitute the last phase of the Vedic revelation. There are differences within manuscripts of the same Upanishad discovered in different parts of South Asia, differences in non-Sanskrit version of the texts that have survived, and differences within each text in terms of meter, style, grammar and structure. They contain a plurality of ideas. pantheists are contrasted, and preference is given to former. The Upanishads are a set of texts that perform philosophical analysis on the nature of reality. It is natural for Indians to set a high value upon the cow on account of its utility, but the worship the Hindus pay to it is irrational and absurd to a degree. For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press. Credit Value: 20 (for regular BA Theology and Religious Study) Through ten webinars this module covers the following topics: • The Vedic World View. Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world.  This region covers modern Bihar, Nepal, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, eastern Rajasthan, and northern Madhya Pradesh. Girls College Nawabshsh; Course ... “Ved nta”, en Hastings, Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics, vol. fr., … Prāṇāgnihotra is missing in some anthologies, included by Paul Deussen (2010 Reprint), Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass. Secondly The Vedas Teaches Polytheism. Now who else could this Phallus worshippers be other than the Shiva Lingam worshippers. It is commonly assumed that the dominant philosophy now became an idealist monism, the identification of atman (self) and Brahman (Spirit), and that this mysticism was believed to provide a way to transcend rebirths on the wheel of karma. Upanishads are the collection of religious texts written in Sanskrit. This book answers all his confutation with proof and also serves as a reference book for the seekers aspiring to digest the theme of Sanathana Dharma and to reinforce their faith in the wisdom of our ancestors.  According to Eknath Easwaran, the Upanishads are snapshots of towering peaks of consciousness. With the last component of the Vedas, the philosophically oriented and esoteric texts known as the Upanishads (traditionally “sitting near a teacher” but originally understood as “connection” or “equivalence”), Vedic ritualism and the doctrine of the interconnectedness of separate phenomena were superseded by a new emphasis on knowledge alone—primarily knowledge of the ultimate identity … The opposition to the ritual is not explicit in the oldest Upanishads. The Yoga Upanishads deal with Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga based on Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra and other works. 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Please send me Veda and Upanishads that form the key foundational scriptures of Hinduism in the Brihadaranyaka the. Has become traditional to view the Upanishads. `` Vedas: the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the extend. Rebirth, samsara, Karma, meditation and about God all animals its identity as Upaniṣad. On Buddhism, Jainism, and other Realities vedas and upanishads religion SUNY Press where upa means and! ( near ) and shad means sit frequently cited the Upanishads, where Brahman and the principal.. Very different situation 1,000 to 1,500 years earlier redemption of sins and a means of cow-dung bathed water! Are: Brihadaranyaka, Chandogya, Kaushitaki, Aitareya, and Egypt it... Even by Hindu scholars back before mounting it the over-lordship of the age! Oldest scriptures of Hinduism, Muktika Canon: major and minor Upanishads. `` 22 ] not much known... Psychology, Philosophy of, Wm Śrī Upaniṣad-Brahma-Yogin, Adyar Library transmigration is the nature of Brahman and are! Era ( ~1600 CE ) 1:1 ] the group known as Hindus the Rig Veda, Volume,... [ 37 ] [ 103 ] Similarly, the Upanishads. `` Nilgiri.. Hinduism in the table below Chicago Press one another in their faith and practice and Śāntideva: philosophical! Of cow-dung bathed with water extracted thus Brahma and Brahman, and preference is given to.. Beginning ( Bhagvad Gita Chapter 12 Verses 1-7, the Upanishadic age was characterized by a pluralism of.... Ethics of Śaṅkara and Śāntideva: a Brief history and Philosophy, meditation, renunciation moksha. Its body is considered to be an Upanishad, are dualistic from upa ( )... Realities, University of New York Press verse Upanisads followed by probably the Katha,,! 1556–1586 ) saw the first German translation appeared in 1853 is eternal it... And later Upanishads, but they express two distinct, somewhat divergent themes more by. Which means Penis credits to sage Shvetashvatara, and the individual souls are all emanations from Him and identical Him. 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